Analytical Techniques-4 Different Types Used in Pharmaceutical Analysis

Analytical Techniques-4 Different Types Used in Pharmaceutical Analysis

Analytical Techniques is a branch of science that is related to the various disciplines of chemistry like physical chemistry, organic chemistry, and inorganic chemistry.

We hope that you are familiar with the term analytical techniques. Analytical techniques in chemistry and analytical techniques in biotechnology are very popular among researchers and laboratory workers. In this article, we’re going to discuss different types of analytic techniques that are used in pharmaceutical analysis. We’ll discuss pharmaceutical analysis and different types of analytical methods. 

What are Analytical Techniques?

Analytical Technique is a branch of science that is related to the various disciplines of chemistry like physical chemistry, organic chemistry, and inorganic chemistry. It helps us to identify a substance, determine its structures, and quantitative analysis of a compound. If you search the term analytical techniques pdf or analytical techniques ppt on google you may find huge information on it. 

What are different analytical techniques?

1. On the basis of chemical reactions

  • Titrimetric analysis 
  • Gravimetric analysis 
  • Volumetric analysis 

2. On the basis of optical absorption

  • Visible spectrophotometry 
  • Ultraviolet spectrophotometry 
  • Infrared spectrophotometry 
  • NMR spectrophotometry 
  • Atomic absorption photometry 

3. On the basis of optical emission

  • Emission spectrophotometry 
  • Flame photometry 
  • Fluorimetry 

4. On the basis of electrical methods

  • Voltammetry 
  • Coulometry 
  • Potentiometry 
  • Conductimetry

Factors That Affect The Analytical Method

  • Availability of standard for the sample.

Before choosing a specific analytical method we have to think about the availability of the standards that are needed for testing the given sample. 

  • The facilities available for them are like this.

Is your lab sufficiently equipped to perform several analytical tests? The lab facility is a big factor in choosing an analytical method. Various reagents and instruments are needed during a chemical and test.

  • Nature of the materials. 

Your test material can be liquid, solid, or semisolid. There are chemical methods, electrical methods, and many more methods to analyze particular materials.

  • The size of the sample.

The analytical method varies depending on the sample size. You must consider how much sample is to analyze. Sometimes we change our testing strategy depending on the size of the sample.

  • The concentration range of the sample.

Concentration or density is a big factor in the case of pharmaceutical analysis. A sample with a higher concentration needs special handling and care. 

  • The time available for the analytical method.

There are some time-consuming analytical tests. Therefore, we have to consider the total time of an analytical method before starting a process. 

  • The purpose of the analytical data.

Which purpose you want to use the experimental data is also a factor of the analytical technique. Analytical data is a vital thing in an experiment. 

What is Pharmaceutical Analysis?

Pharmaceutical analysis is a process or a series of processes that are used for the purification, determination, identification, and quantification of the various compounds. Pharmaceutical analysis is a subject that is used in the pharmacy for qualitative and quantitative analysis. This process can be used for the analysis of plants, microorganisms, minerals, and synthetic compounds. 

Pharmaceutical Analysis According to Determination Type

Qualitative Analysis

Suppose you want to know what compounds are present in the Datura Stramonium. In this regard, you perform a test to know the name of the unknown compound in the sample. It is called qualitative analysis. In this analysis,  the determination of the unknown compound from a supplied sample is performed.  

Quantitative Analysis

The name almost says itself quantitative analysis means the test that is performed to know the quantity of a specific compound. In this test, it is determined how much compound is present in a supplied sample. Suppose you performed a test and came to know that 88.68% of atropine is present in the sample of the datura plant. 

Difference between quantitative and qualitative analysis

Quantitative analysisQualitative analysis 
The process of determining how much of each component is present in an unknown sample.The process of determining what substances are present in an unknown sample. 
Concerned with statistical measurements.Focused on quality measurements.
Used to determine the percentage of compounds present in a sample.Used to determine purity, specificity, etc. of a sample.
Quantitative analysis is subjective.It is objective.
It can be measured & experienced.It can only be experienced. 
Quantitative analysis vs Qualitative analysis

Pharmaceutical  Analysis According to Chemical Methods

Proximate Analysis

It is an analytical method in which you can determine each component or element of a supplied sample without any concerns with the exact compound present in the sample. For example, we can say that determination of volatile compounds or moisture of the coals is one kind of Proximate Analysis. 

Partial Analysis

The name partial analysis says itself that it is the determination process of a selected part of the supplied sample. 

Trace Constituent Analysis

Trace means some things that are present in a very low quantity. Therefore, trace constituent analysis is a kind of partial analysis that determines the components that are present in a minute quantity in the supplied sample. 

Complete Analysis

The determination of the proportion of each compound present in a supplied sample is called complete analysis.

Complete analysisPartial analysis
The analysis which determines the proportion of each component present in the sample is called complete analysis.The analysis which deals with the determination of selected constituents in the sample is called partial analysis.
Non-selected.It is selected. 
Taken more times than partial analysis.It takes less time than complete analysis.
More expensiveLess expensive than complete analysis. 
Complete analysis vs Partial analysis

Pharmaceutical  Analysis According to Sample Size

  1. Macro Analysis
  2. Semi-micro Analysis
  3. Micro Analysis
  4. Sub-micro Analysis
  5. Ultra-micro Analysis


What is the difference between analytics and analysis?

Both analytics and analysis refer to the examination of some things. There are not huge differences between them, actually, they are the same. The analysis is a general and broader concept than analytics. Analytics is a more specific and systematic examination of data.

Is data analysis hard?

You need to learn many things to be a data analyst. It’s not hard but you have to learn the basic skill for the analysis of data. Is it highly academic? No, it is not highly academic. Someone who wants to learn data analysis needs patience and strong determination. 

Final Words

In this modern world, it would be better if you have a piece of good knowledge of analytical techniques. In the above article, drug scientists have tried to supply the best idea on analytical techniques. Stay with us for more interesting knowledge. 

Hridoy Kumar Paul is experienced in pharmaceutical and health blogs, author, and founder of Currently, Hridoy is pursuing a Bachelor of Pharmacy degree at Jashore University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh. Articles on are general information and are not intended to substitute for professional advice. The information is "AS IS", "WITH ALL FAULTS". User assumes all risk of use, damage, or injury. You agree that we have no liability for any damages.

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