What Is Acid-Base Titration? Learn in 5 Minutes

What Is Acid-Base Titration? Learn in 5 Minutes

Want to know What Is Acid-Base Titration? It is an experimental technique that is widely used around the world to know the concentration of a solution containing an acid or base.

We can determine the unknown concentration of an acid or base by acid-base titration. The determination process of the unknown concentration of an acid or base by using a known concentration acid or base is called acid-base titration. In today’s article, we will teach you What Is Acid-Base Titration with a proper example. Let’s move forward to the next paragraph. 

Acid-Base Titration Theory

It is the titration of an acid or base by the consequent acid or base. An acidic or basic titrant reacts with an analyte that is a base or an acid. It is based on the neutralization reaction of acid and base. A neutralization reaction between an acid and base produces salt and water. Suitable indicators are used to find out the endpoint of the neutralization reaction. The endpoint is just the color change from the indicator. 

Titrant: The reagent of known concentration is called titrant. The titrant is taken in the buret for titration. 

Titrand: Titrand is the substance whose concentration is to be determined by the titration method. It is taken in the conical flux during the titration process. 

Acid-base Titration Example

  • Titration of HCl with NaOH 

Both hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide are very strong in nature.  It is called the titration of a strong acid and strong base. Strong acid and a strong base react with each other to form a neutral solution(PH7). 

  • Titration of CH3COOH with NaOH  

Acetic acid is a weak acid, and sodium hydroxide is a strong base. Here, the neutralization reaction occurs between a weak acid and a strong base.

  • Titration HCl with NH4OH  

The neutralization reaction can occur between a strong acid and a weak base. Ammonium hydroxide is a weak base, and hydrochloric acid is a strong acid.

  • Titration of CH3COOH with NH4OH  

Weak acid-weak base titration is also possible to know the unknown concentration of a compound by neutralization reaction between a weak acid and a weak base. Both acetic acid and ammonium hydroxide have weak ionization power. 

Types of Acid-base Titration

Acid-base titration can be classified into four types. Such as: 

1. Direct acid-base titration 

2. Indirect acid-base titration 

3. Back acid-base titration 

4. Replacement acid-base titration

What is the importance of acid-base titration?

An acid-base titration is very important for chemical analysis in a laboratory. Not only the researchers and laboratory workers should know this method, but also the students should have good knowledge about this titration. Let’s discuss the importance of this titration serially.

  1. It is a quantitative analysis process of any acids and bases. There are two primary types of analysis. That’s quantitative and qualitative analysis. We can easily determine the unknown concentration of a compound by acid-base titration. But we can not determine which compounds are present in the sample by acid-base titration. 
  2. The unknown concentration of an acid or base can be determined by this process. Sometimes it is needed to know the concentration of an acid or base in our laboratory for investigation purposes. So we can find out the unknown concentration easily by performing this simple titration. 
  3. Neutralization reactions can be determined by this method. In neutralization reaction occurs between the acid and base. Also, the volume of the sample can easily be determined by this process. 

What is an indicator in Acid-base titration? 

Indicators are highly colored organic dyes that have the capability to change color in a specific pH range in a neutralization reaction.PH interval is the range in which an indicator changes its color. the pH interval of the methyl red indicator. For example, Methyl red, Methyl orange, and Phenolphthalein are some commonly used indicators in acid-base titration. Each indicator has a specific ph interval. Such as Methyl orange gives visible color between the pH of 3.1-4.4.  

Classification of Indicators- Used in the Acid-base Titration

 Indicators are mainly three types. They are

1. Screened indicator. 

2. Mixed indicator. 

3. Universal indicator. 

Screened indicator: The color change of a single indicator may be improved by the addition of a pH-sensitive dye-stuff to produce the complement of the indicator colors. This type of indicator is called a screened indicator. 

Example: Addition of xylene cyanol F.F to methyl orange. Here, the color changed from alkaline to acidic side by producing Green-grey-magenta. Preparation: Dissolve 1g methyl range & 1.4g xylene cyanol FF in 500 ml of 50% ethanol. Purpose: To improve color change. 

Mixed indicator: Mixed indicator is an indicator that is composed of two different indicators. 

Example: Phenolphthalein & 1-naphtholphthalein. Preparation: A mixture of phenolphthalein (3 parts of 0.1% solution in ethanol) & 1-naphtholphthalein (1 part of 0.1% solution of ethanol) passes from pale rose to violet at pH=8.9. Purpose: To obtain a sharp color change over a narrow & selected range of pH. 

Universal indicator: A universal indicator is one kind of mixed indicator and several compounds that exhibits several smooth color changes over a pH range of 1-14 to indicate the acidic or alkaline solution. 

Example: A universal of water; propene-1-ol; phenolphthalein; thymol blue; monosodium salt.

FAQ

What is the purpose of acid-base titration?

The unknown concentration of a base can be determined by titrating it with a volume of known concentration of the acid solution. The unknown concentration of an acid solution also can be determined by this method. A neutralization reaction occurs between the acid and base. So the purpose of acid-base titration is a quantitative analysis of an acid or base. 

What are the types of acid-base titration?

Basically, it has 4 types. They are

  1. The titration of a strong acid with a strong base. For example, hydrochloric or sulfuric acid are strong acids. Sodium hydroxide is a strong base. 

2. The titration of a weak acid with a strong base. For example, acetic or lactic acid are weak acids. 

3. The titration of a weak base and strong acid. Ammonium hydroxide is a weak base, and hydrochloric acid is a strong acid.

4. The titration of Weak acid and weak base. For example, acetic acid and ammonium hydroxide have weak ionization power. 

Final Words

An acid-base titration is an experimental technique that is widely used around the world to know the concentration of a solution containing an acid or base. It is a vast concept. In this article, we have tried to illustrate this in a nutshell. Hope you are clear now What Is Acid-Base Titration. If you have any questions on this topic, please comment here about them. We will try to cover it in the next article. 

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